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    Like you, this is very complex. For the past 500 ka we may assume that both continents and ocean floors have changed very little so these effects do not affect the points I raised. This is probably true as far back as the Miocene, but not for the K where the Atlantic was being formed, the Pacific was being enormously expanded and the Thetys was presumably a large body of shallower water. K se-levels can thus be taken with a very large pinch of salt - what is of interest though is their relative shift - which can be identified and hints at ice formation or other factors. All very much out of my area I'm afraid. For the time being I hope to focus on getting data on the Drowned Forest Effect. Alan

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    […] Judith Curry has curated a great collection of articles to review .  Judith is the President (co-owner) of Climate Forecast Applications Network (CFAN).  Previously, she was Professor and Chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. […]

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    CO2 is well mixed. Water is not. According to MODTRAN CO2 concentration at the surface is the same as concentration at 70 Km. https://geosciencebigpicture.files.wordpress.com/2018/12/Modtran-CO2-Only-410ppm-Upflux-by-Altitude.png This permeation of the stratosphere allows CO2 to radiate upwards over 3 W/m2 at the tropical tropopause. All radiance above this point INCREASES in energy to the fourth power of the increasing temperature through the stratosphere. CO2 would be a better thermostat if it were less well mixed.

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    Judith, The ocean heat content post by Hausfather, Trenberth, et al has already gotten some pushback due to its understating of error bars. Willis Eschenbach did some calculations about what these uptake numbers translate into in terms of temperature changes. The error bars correspond to really small temperature changes.

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    Post on OHC coming tomorrow

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    I just checked Lewis and Curry 2018 and you used the most recent updates for ocean heat uptake, the same ones used by Cheng, Abraham, Hausfather et al. Numbers cited in both papers are quite consistent.

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    100 years of progress in polar meteorology [link] And they still do not understand that the warmer Arctic rebuilt ice during the Roman and Medieval warm periods and caused little ice ages after. This is happening again, open Arctic is rebuilding Greenland ice again for another ice advance and colder period after a few hundred years of more snowfall and ice accumulation on Greenland and other cold places where ice is sequestered in the Northern Hemisphere. Study the Greenland ice core data and history.

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    After reading “A Terrifying Sea Level Prediction Now Looks Less Likely” it becomes almost impossible not to be cynical about the establishment, even though cooler heads might have prevailed...for the time being. “ They champion an idea called “marine ice-cliff instability,” or MICI, which maintains that West Antarctic glaciers will eventually crumble under their own weight. By the middle of next century, they warn, this mechanism could send ocean levels soaring at a rate of several feet per decade. For reference: Along the U.S. East Coast, the Atlantic Ocean has risen by only about a foot over the last 12 decades.” So let’s assume several feet becomes 3 feet, or 3.6 inches per year. That is quite a leap since in one year GMSLR from the Ice Sheets would exceed the total SLR for Sydney over the last 130 years. I hope someone is compiling all these apocalyptic predictions so that in 2150 a book can be written listing all the times they got it wrong.

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    There is a misunderstanding of the ideal gas equation that appears to be unquestioned here - emerging as it does from the Venus meme. T = pV/nR see - https://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/kt/idealgases.html As an instantaneous response or in an isolated system - putting a gas under pressure will result in a temperature rise as a result of confining kinetic energy to a smaller space. A system that is not thermodynamically isolated will return to a local thermodynamic equilibrium.

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    I will agree that this is yet more self indulgent rubbish.

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    the really interesting OHC stuff is prior to 1950

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    But it is scientifically accurate "self indulgent rubbish".

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    ==== ❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶ ❶①❶① ❶①❶① . . . The Comb of Death . . . ❶①❶① ❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶①❶ ==== What, you may be wondering, is the “Comb of Death”? In simple terms, it is a graph that looks like a comb. But, what has it got to do with Death? Well, “The Comb of Life” didn’t sound very exciting. But “Death” is a certain winner. And it is showing “global warming”. That causes a lot of deaths. Or it will in the future, if the “Comb of Death” is correct. The “Comb of Death” displays temperature ranges, for more than 24,000 locations on the Earth. And I am talking about REAL, ACTUAL, ABSOLUTE temperatures. Not those weak, pale, temperature anomaly things. But real, actual, absolute temperatures. The sort that REAL men use (and REAL women too). ==================== The Oil companies offered me a lot of money to “forget” about the “Comb of Death” with +3.0 degrees Celsius of global warming. But I am an artist, and they didn’t offer me enough money. Because people are not making enough effort to reduce their carbon footprints, the IPCC has asked me to show you a “Comb of Death” based on +3.0 degrees Celsius of global warming. They expect that this “Comb of Death” will make Alarmists scream in fear, and will make Skeptics repent their evil ways. A word of warning, this last “Comb of Death” is not for the faint-hearted. https://agree-to-disagree.com/the-comb-of-death

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    Chicken Little says, again and again, "The Sky is Falling". The "Comb of Death" is one more way to say "The Sky is Falling", and just as bad and wrong. Warm times with open, thawed, oceans are necessary to rebuild sequestered ice that advances and causes cooling. Warming is really happening and has really happened, but it is normal, natural and necessary. Ice core data shows that ice accumulation on Greenland and Antarctica was most in warmest times and coldest times followed.

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    I disagree.

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    I have a radio interview on science based limits to renewable energy at https://khow.iheart.com/featured/ross-kaminsky/content/2019-01-10-david-wojick-on-the-unlikelihood-of-100-renewable-energy/ Plus some Colorado stuff because that is where it is.

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    I guess that we will just have to "agree-to-disagree.com" about it !!!

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    popesclimatetheory, you need to learn to read "beneath the surface". I am a skeptic. I am trying to highlight the fact that global warming will NOT be as bad, as Alarmists say it will be. I often use sarcasm, to make my point. Some people don't seem to understand that I am being sarcastic. I like Monty Python. Associating an everyday harmless object (like a comb), with death, makes me smile. I hope that other people enjoy the joke.

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    I find it odd that the Argo record - for which we have concurrent CERES data - doesn't figure more prominently. https://watertechbyrie.files.wordpress.com/2019/01/argo-to-may-2018-e1547331349669.jpg Cloud feedbacks to SST -https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2018GL077904 Changes in Earthy's energy budget during and after the hiatus - file:///C:/Users/WorkVentures/Downloads/climate-06-00062.pdf 2013-2015 heatwave off Baja California - https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2018GL078242 The long Pacific memory of cold times - https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2018GL077904 Ocean heat is far from an unambiguous 'fingerprint' of AGW.

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    Changes in Earth's energy budget - https://www.mdpi.com/2225-1154/6/3/62

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